A tentative calculation ... indicated that, at the end of an 8 hr shift with exposure to tetrachloroethylene at 50 ppm (TWA), 38% of the tetrachloroethylene absorbed through the lung would be exhaled unchanged and less than 2% would be metabolized to be excreted into the urine, while the rest would remain in the body to be eliminated later. Exposure to this substance irritates the upper respiratory tract and eyes and causes neurological effects as well as kidney and liver damage. Other names for tetrachloroethylene include perchloroethylene, perc, PCE, and tetrachloroethene. Choose from a wide range of similar scenes. It should not be confused with the similar 1,1,1-trichloroethane, which is commonly known as … Poisoning-Toxicology, Symptoms, Treatments. III. Tetrachloroethylene and trichloroacetic acid (TCA), a breakdown product of tetrachloroethylene, can be detected in the blood. Differences as high as 20% were often found in the physiological parameters, including differences in average body weight, tissue volumes, and blood flows. Urinary metabolites from individual mice were quantified to estimate the extent to which each compound was metabolized. 2. Trichloroethylene (TRI) and tetrachloroethylene (TETRA) are solvents that have been widely used in a variety of industries, and both are widespread environmental contaminants. Tetrachloroethylene is a common soil contaminant. /Former/, VET: Restrict dietary fat within 2 days before and after use to avoid enhanced absorption of this fat sol liver toxicant. These aerosol automotive products may be used by the public, as well as by professionals. The TCVC derivatives are toxicologically important but quantitatively minor metabolites. It is also used for producing other chemicals as starting material (building block) and is used in some consumer goods. Medical Toxicology - Diagnosis and Treatment of Human Poisoning. The sole Canadian CEPA Assessment Report 4 manufacturer of chlorofluorocarbons ceased production of these chemicals in December 1992 (Chen, 1993). The excretion via blood and lungs occurred at 3 different rate constants with half-lives of 12-16 hr, 30-40 hr, and about 55 hr, respectively, 20, 50, and 100 hr after exposure. Because it has no C-H bonds, carbo n tetrachloride does not easily undergo free-radical . For TETRA, the current data suggest TCA formation that is similar or slightly lower than that of previous studies. Unmetabolized tetrachloroethylene was found in the fetoplacental unit following inhalation exposure of pregnant 657BL/6N mice to radioactive tetrachloroethylene for 10 minutes or 1 hour. For TRI, data from the current study support lower apparent blood-air partition coefficients, greater apparent metabolic clearance, less TCA production, and greater glucuronidation of TCOH as compared to previous studies. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 5th ed. Because of its lipophilicity, the highest concentrations of tetrachloroethylene are found in adipose tissue. •More than 80% of the PCE produced is used in the dry cleaning industry. If dams were exposed on day 17 of pregnancy, levels in the fetal brain were lower than in other organs. The metabolism of trichloroethylene was linearly related to dose through 1600 mg/kg, but then became saturated. Tetrachloroethylene was once extensively used as an intermediate in the manufacture of HFC-134a and related refrigerants. 4. /Former use/, Booth, N.H., L.E. The structures of the identified metabolites indicate two different pathways operative in Tetra biotransformation: cytochrome P-450-mediated epoxidation forming reactive metabolites in the liver and conjugation of Tetra with glutathione (GSH) catalyzed by glutathione transferase(s). New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1974., p. 587, Tetrachloroethylene is a colorless, volatile, nonflammable, liquid, chlorinated hydrocarbon with an ether-like odor that may emit toxic fumes of phosgene when exposed to sunlight or flames. The major industrial uses of tetrachloroethylene are as a solvent in dry-cleaning, as a degreasing agent for manufactured metal parts and as a precursor in the production of chlorofluorocarbons. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. Tetrachloroethylene was still detectable in the breath of rats 16 hr after a single exposure to levels of 339-3390 mg/cu m for 1-40 hr. It is also used in aerosol preparations. The CYP pathway is the predominant route of tetrachloroethylene metabolism in rats and humans. U.S. Dept Health & Human Services/Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry; Toxicological Profile for Number 18: Tetrachloroethylene p. 97-98 (September 1997). The formation of reactive intermediates by renal processing of the glutathione conjugates may provide a molecular mechanism for the nephrotoxicity and nephrocarcinogenicity of Tetra in male rats. ... No food or water should be allowed for 12-18 hr before & for 4 hr after dosing. Qualitatively, TRI and TETRA toxicokinetics were consistent with previous human studies. WHO; Environmental Health Criteria Document No. Plasma albumin adducted with the trichloro derivative, indicating metabolism by the CYP pathway, was found in rats and humans exposed to tetrachloroethylene at 40 ppm for 6 hours. Approximately 3% was excreted as carbon dioxide, and approximately 23% was excreted in the urine and feces as nonvolatile metabolites. tetra-+‎ chloro-+‎ ethylene. [13] [14], The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has compiled extensive health and safety information for tetrachloroethylene,[15][16] including recommendations for dry cleaning establishments. Uses. That general pattern of disposition of tetrachloroethylene appears to be consistent after both oral and inhalation dosing. 1. It is also used as a starting material (building block) for making other chemicals and is used in some consumer products. Stewart RD et al; Arch Environ Health 2: 516 (1961) as cited in USEPA; Ambient Water Quality Criteria Doc: Tetrachloroethylene p.C-3 (1980) EPA 440/5-80-073. Although quantitatively a minor pathway it is important, as it offers a possible explanation for the kidney tumors in male rats. Comparison studies between rats and humans indicate that humans metabolize tetrachloroethylene less than rats. 1.4 Uses Tetrachloroethylene is mainly used as a solvent in dry cleaning and metal cleaning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to (14)C-tetrachloroethylene by either gavage (1.0 mg/kg) or inhalation (10 ppm, 10.4 mg/kg) excreted 70% of the dose unchanged in expired air. It is also known as perchloroethylene. It is used as a solvent for many organic substances, in dry cleaning processes, as a metal degreaser, as an intermediate in the synthesis of certain fluorocarbons, and in the textile industry (Fuller 1976). "Chlorinated Hydrocarbons" in, "Assessment of Hazardous Waste Practices: Organic Chemicals, Pesticides and Explosives Industries" prebpublication issue for EPA Libraries and Solid Waste Management Agencies under contract # 68-01-2919, USEPA 1976, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, United States Environmental Protection Agency, International Agency for Research on Cancer, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits, "Toxicological Profile For Tetrachloroethylene", Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning, Industrial Solvent Linked to Increased Risk of Parkinson's Disease, "Solvents: the hazardous chemicals to avoid in everyday life - Meds News", "ATSDR - Medical Management Guidelines (MMGs): Tetrachloroethylene (PERC)", "OSH Answers:4-Working Safely with Tetrachloroethylene", "Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene)", "Criteria for a Recommended Standard: Occupational Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene) (76-185)", "Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning (97-154)", "Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning (Substitution) (97-155)", "Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning (Machine Design) (97-156)", "Control of Exposure to Perchloroethylene in Commercial Drycleaning (Ventilation) (97-157)", Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 68: TETRACHLOROETHENE, "Toxicological Profile for Tetrachloroethene", Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, ATSDR Case Studies in Environmental Medicine: Tetrachloroethylene Toxicity, Sustainable uses and Industry recommendations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tetrachloroethylene&oldid=996984460, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Much work has focused on differences between humans and rats, particularly on differences that would influence the human risk of renal cancer that has been observed in rat bioassays. Documentation of the TLV's and BEI's with Other World Wide Occupational Exposure Values. Toxicokinetic time courses and empirical analyses of classical toxicokinetic parameters were compared with those reported in previous human volunteer studies, most of which involved exposures that were at least 10 fold higher. Tetrachloroethene is found in consumer products, including some paint and spot removers, water repellents, brake and wood cleaners, glues, and suede protectors. IV. [10] Tetrachloroethylene dissolves fats from the skin, potentially resulting in skin irritation. It is widely used as a solvent in the dry-cleaning and vapor-degreasing industry; as solvents for fats, greases, waxes, rubber, gums, and For the structure and properties of tetrachloroethylene, see Table 1.