The first emotion listed in each row (e.g., fear, anger, joy) is the basic emotion, the second is the same emotion except at a greater intensity (that is, terror, rage, ecstasy) (1980, 1984). The neural machinery is but a hyphen between determinate arrangements of matter outside the body and determinate impulses to inhibition or discharge within its organs” (1884, p. 190). The non-cognitive theorists deny that propositional attitudes and the conceptual knowledge that they require (for example, anger is the judgment that I have been wronged) are necessary for emotions. The second approach describes the non-cognitive process in a very similar way, but defends the idea that all emotions are non-cognitive. This classification creates a psychological category, which Griffiths terms the affect program emotions: surprise, anger, fear, sadness, joy, and disgust. Paul Ekman originally developed what is now the standard description of the non-cognitive process (1977), and more recently Paul Griffiths has incorporated Ekman’s account into his own theory of the emotions (1997). The internal approach attempts to provide a description of the emotion process itself. That is, emotions are the products of societies and cultures, and are acquired or learned by individuals through experience. The idea of emotions as transitory social roles is distinct from the notion of a syndrome, but characterizes the same phenomena, in particular, the eliciting conditions and the responses for an emotion. Theories of emotion can be categorized in terms of the context within which the explanation is developed. This is a claim for which there is some evidence, although except for facial expressions, the current evidence is not very strong (see Ekman, 1999; Levenson, Ekman, & Friesen, 1990; Prinz, 2004b). A second response is to be more specific about the nature of the judgment itself. Think about times in your life when you have been absolutely elated (e.g., perhaps your school’s basketball team just won a closely contested ballgame for the national championship) and very fearful (e.g., you are about to give a speech in your public speaking class to a roomful of 100 strangers). When the emotion is placed such that it lines up with more than one value for an appraisal component (e.g., anger can be uncertain or certain), any of those values can be assigned for that emotion. Zajonc asserted that some emotions occur separately from or prior to our cognitive interpretation of them, such as feeling fear in response to an unexpected loud sound (Zajonc, 1998). An outline of the social constructionist viewpoint. Biological and cultural contributions to body and facial movement. In the case of the emotions, which he calls “basic adaptations needed by all organisms in the struggle for individual survival” (1980, p. 145), Plutchik suggests that the selection occurred in the Cambrian era, 600 million years ago. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.). Roseman, I. J., & Smith, C. A. Robinson also suggests that the non-cognitive process may be followed by cognitive activity that labels an emotion response in ways that reflect the individual’s thoughts and beliefs. The somatosensory cortices will respond as if the bodily activity was actually occurring. In this way, emotions differ from reflexes such as the startle response or the eye-blink response, which are direct responses to certain kinds of stimuli. These two types of theories are discussed in this section, as is a third type, the somatic feedback theories. In order to know that a trait is an adaptation, we have to be familiar with the circumstances under which the selection occurred (Brandon, 1990; Richardson, 1996). However, another way of considering emotions challenges our entire understanding of emotions. The early part of the emotion process is the activity between the perception and the triggering of the bodily response (that is, the emotion response), and the later part of the emotion process is the bodily response: changes in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expression, skin conductivity, and so forth. The third theorist in this group, Antonio Damasio, is also able to account for the intentionality of the mental state that is caused by feedback from the body. Richards, M., Hardy, R., & Wadsworth, M. (1997). On the left are the behaviors that, according to Plutchik, are the result of natural selection, and on the right are the emotions associated with these behaviors. A. Simpson, D. T. Kenrick (Eds.). Hence, according to James, when the appropriate type of stimulus is perceived (that is a bear), this automatically causes a bodily response (trembling, raised heart rate, and so forth), and the individual’s awareness of this bodily response is the fear. Facial expressions. All of these various components are linked together for an individual by principles of organization. Rosaldo, R. I. Rom Harré also points out that language, social practices, and other elements of an individual’s culture have a significant role in the formation of emotions. A polygraph, or lie detector test, measures the physiological arousal of an individual responding to a series of questions. Cosmides, L. & Tooby, J. James-Lange Theory 2. The James–Lange theory of emotion asserts that emotions arise from physiological arousal: in essence, that the self-perception of changes in the body produce emotional experiences. Plutchik, R. (1984). These theories are: The evolutionary theory of emotion; Lazarus theory of emotion (cognitive appraisal theory) James-Lange theory of emotion; Let’s see what some of the world’s brightest minds have to say about why we feel the way we feel. While everyone who received an injection of epinephrine experienced the same physiological arousal, only those who were not expecting the arousal used context to interpret the arousal as a change in emotional state (Schachter & Singer, 1962). Of course, there are times when emotion responses do not adhere well to what one may think of as moral rules or values, for instance, taking pleasure in creating graffiti or taking pride in hurting people. Griffiths adopts a slightly different way of describing the model; he treats Ekman’s two mechanisms as a single system, which he calls the affect program. She notes that, “each element of this set of beliefs is necessary in order for anger to be present: if I should discover that not x but y had done the damage, or that it was not done willingly, or that it was not serious, we could expect my anger to modify itself accordingly or recede” (2004, p. 188). The first develops an explanation of the non-cognitive process, but claims that only some emotions are non-cognitive. Each of these four theories explains the order of events that occur when an emotion is present. It is also similar to the theories developed by William James (1884) and, more recently, Jesse Prinz (2004a), which are discussed in the next section. Table 3. Jesse Prinz has recently expanded upon James’ theory. Solomon, R. C. (1977). LeDoux also views some emotions as requiring no cognition: some emotions completely bypass contextual interpretation. Morsbach, H., & Tyler, W. J. Further, the emotions that we have and how we express them reflect our social environment, but it also seems likely that emotions were shaped by natural selection over time. Resistance to such approaches is motivated by the claim that emotions possess a sui generis phenomenology. In R. Harré (Ed.). Every individual who understands this syndrome may at different times have the following grief responses: shock, crying, refusing to cry (that is, keeping a stiff upper lip), declining to eat, neglecting basic responsibilities, and so on. This explanation allows Robinson to maintain the idea that emotions are non-cognitive while acknowledging that humans can have emotions in response to complex events. A model of appraisal in the emotion system: Integrating theory, research, and applications. Mood states may not be consciously recognized and do not carry the intentionality that is associated with emotion (Beedie, Terry, Lane, & Devonport, 2011). The Theories of multiple components They consider that emotions are not fixed, since the same emotion can feel more or less intense depending on certain factors. According to other theories, emotions are not causal forces but simply syndromes of components, which might include motivation, feeling, behavior, and physiological changes, but no one of these components is the emotion. Some possible examples of emotions that were selected for in early hominids. . Plutchik’s theory also accounts for more than just these eight emotions. Parkinson, B., Fischer, A., & Manstead, A. S. R. (2005). Nevertheless, experience it people did. In R. C. Solomon (Ed.). For example, in Roseman’s model, anger and regret take the same values for all of the appraisals except for the agency component; for that appraisal, regret takes the value self-caused and anger takes other-caused. Unlike some of the judgment theorists, all of the cognitive appraisal theorists agree that the appraisals are followed by a bodily response, which is properly consider part of the emotion process. The transitory social roles are rule governed ways of performing a social role, and so individuals adopt a role that is consistent with what a given situation calls for. simultaneously. Damasio, A. R. (1996). The appraisal components and the different values that each component can take are motivational state (appetitive, aversive), situational state (motive-consistent, motive-inconsistent), probability (certain, uncertain, unknown), power (strong, weak), and agency (self-caused, other-caused, circumstance-caused). Associating one theory with two names will be a trend common to all three theories of emotion. There are different theories of emotion to explain what emotions are and how they operate. Barrett extended that to include emotions as concepts that are predictions (Barrett, 2017). Ekman’s automatic appraisal mechanism and Robinson’s affective appraisals are both supposed to determine which emotion is generated. Evolutionary theories attempt to provide an historical analysis of the emotions, usually with a special interest in explaining why humans today have the emotions that they do. Griffiths defends the view that the vernacular term emotion does not pick out a single psychological class. According to Paul Griffiths, some emotions should be identified and then classified in this way (1997, 2004). The main differences concern the exact appraisals that are used in this process. In the Pantegni(Theor. What Selye found was that under such conditions the rats were forced to adapt to their environment, a process known as the general adaptation syndrome (GAS). Emotion and memory: The second cognitive revolution. The basic theoretical framework is the same for all of the cognitive appraisal theories. Figure 1. The past explains the present: Emotional adaptations and the structure of ancestral environments. Emotion is a mode of behavior which is purposive, or has an intellectual content. This in turn reflects the judgment theorists’ claim that in order to have an emotion the individual must judge (evaluate, acknowledge) that events are a certain way. The third category of theories contains those that attempt to describe the emotion process itself. According to Averill, “an emotion is a transitory social role (a socially constituted syndrome) that includes an individual’s appraisal of the situation and that is interpreted as a passion rather than as an action” (1980, p. 312). William James (1884) was the first to develop a somatic feedback theory, and recently James’ model has been revived and expanded by Antonio Damasio (1994, 2001) and Jesse Prinz (2004a, 2004b). , have an effect angry behavior ( Schachter & Singer, 1962 ) the arrows point to the non-cognitive.... 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